Tokyo - TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION (TMC) is proud to
announce that it has donated an original Toyoda Type G Automatic Loom (Toyoda Type G) for
permanent display at Britain's venerable National Museum of Science & Industry. The
precedent-setting loom, manufactured by Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd. in 1926, is part
of the Museum's "Making the Modern World" gallery, which was officially opened
today in London by Her Majesty the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh.
The Toyoda Type G
is a non-stop shuttle-change motion automatic loom invented by Sakichi Toyoda, father of
Kiichiro Toyoda, founder of Toyota Motor Co. The authentic unit donated to the Science
Museum is fully operational and has the same specifications as a sample unit sent to
then-world leading spinning and weaving machine manufacturer Platt Brothers & Co. of
the U.K., which bought the rights to the loom's design in 1929.
Modern World" highlights the culture and technology of the nearly 250 years since the
start of the industrial revolution. The gallery, mostly using items from the museum's own
collection, focuses on "first in the world" technologies, displaying them
according to era and year. The Toyoda Type G was the first automatic loom to allow shuttle
changes without stopping the machine.
The unit on
display at the museum was contributed on request through co-operation between TMC and
Toyoda Automatic Loom Works. Special demonstration times have been designated to let
visitors see it in action as the only working exhibit in the gallery.
The Toyoda Type G
was the world's first automatic loom with a non-stop shuttle-change motion. It was
developed by the founder of the Toyota Group, inventor Sakichi Toyoda, in 1924.
Sakichi knew that
the key to making a better loom would be to invent one that was both powered and
automatic. His enthusiasm led him to developing Japan's first power loom in 1896. In 1903,
he accomplished a series of innovations, including creating an automatic shuttle-change
device, which enabled automatic supply of weft (horizontal) yarn, and a device that
automatically stopped the cutting of weft and warp (vertical) yarn. Other achievements
included a variety of devices for protection and safety as well as
"human-oriented" automation. He made all of these devices himself and repeatedly
With his firm
belief that "No invention should be introduced unless fully proven in trial
operation," he started long-term, large-scale tests covering both spinning and
weaving operations. In 1920, Sakichi was joined by his son Kiichiro (the founder of Toyota
Motor Co.). In November 1924, the two completed a flawless automatic loom that implemented
all of Sakichi's patents. Among other attributes, the new loom allowed the smooth change
of shuttles without the need to reduce running speed, even during high-speed operation.
The result was a
machine that was 15 times more productive than existing looms. In addition to increasing
dramatically the weaving efficiency and textile quality, the machine was quite easy to
operate, thus leading to major reductions in labour and equipment costs. In terms of
overall performance, it comprehensively outperformed the automatic looms made in the U.S.
and U.K. at the time. To start producing the Toyota Type G, Sakichi established Toyoda
Automatic Loom Works, Ltd. in 1926. The company received orders for roughly 6,000 units
during the first year alone. By 1937, more than 60,000 units were produced for sale in
Japan and export to China, India, the U.S. and other countries.
introduction of an amendment to the Factory Law in 1929, which prohibited late-night
labour by women and children, and world-wide rationalisation in the fields of production
and management following World War I, the Toyoda Type G came atthe perfect time and not
only made a huge contribution to Japan's textile industry, but also served as the basis
for the growth and development of the Toyota Group.
Brothers & Co., Ltd., the world's top manufacturer of spinning and weaving machines at
the time, highly regarded the Toyota Type G for its performance and bought for 100,000
pounds (about 1 million yen in those days) the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell
the model in countries other than Japan, China and the U.S. The fact that the greatness of
this invention was being recognised world-wide and that a Japanese patent could fetch such
a high price was a rare occurrence and this became one of the defining moments in Japanese